Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technology used to capture CO2 from industrial processes or directly from the air and store it permanently to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The process begins by capturing CO2 from exhaust gases - for instance, from a coal-fired power plant or industrial facility. The CO2 is separated from the other exhaust gases using either chemical absorption processes or physical separation techniques. After capture, the CO2 is stored in suitable storage sites. These include underground geological formations such as deep saltwater reservoirs or empty natural gas or oil fields. The CO2 is injected into these storage sites and safely contained by geological barriers. Alternatively, the CO2 can be converted into solid carbon and used, for example, as a building material, for battery production, or as fertilizer.
CCS technology can make a significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially in industries such as power generation, steel, cement production, or the chemical industry, all of which have high CO2 emissions. By capturing and storing CO2, these industries could significantly reduce their emissions and lower their carbon footprint.