A fuel cell converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy without using combustion or moving parts. The most common form is the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, in which hydrogen reacts with oxygen from the air. This produces electrical energy as well as heat and water. No harmful emissions such as CO2 are produced.
Fuel cells can be used in various applications to reduce greenhouse gas emissions - for example, in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles that run on hydrogen or ammonia offer a long range and short refueling times. They emit only water vapor and no harmful exhaust gases, which contributes to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
In addition, fuel cells can also be used in stationary power generation. They can serve as distributed power systems to better integrate renewable energy. Fuel cells can store surplus renewable electricity in the form of hydrogen and convert it back into electrical energy when needed. This enables greater flexibility and stability in the power grid and supports the expansion of renewable energies.